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210           MORPHOLOGY ASD EVOLUTION

absent. The rugae* radiate from trie mid-line to the sides of the palate. These folds and the papilla vary considerably in Man; and I observed them to be large in a native of Siam. The soft palate has a well-marked uvula in all Apes except the Orang.
The palatal glands are numerous, and their patulous orifices stud both the hard and soft palates. The palatal muscles are very similar to those in Man with the exception of the palato-glossus and palato-pharyngeus.
The tongue is long and narrow in the Gibbons and Chimpanzee, but it is relatively wider in the Gorilla and Orang, Its form depends on the shape of the space within the dental arcade, so it must alter as the skull becomes increasingly prognathous. The apex is rounded or truncated, and, as a rule, is devoid of a notch. The lateral borders are full and rounded, and their posterior parts are cut up into laminae by moderately deep sulci; the laminae and sulci together compose the foliate papillae or lateral organs of Mayer.
The circumvaUate papillae are in most cases fewer than in Man. They are arranged in the form of a V, Y, T or triangle; in the Gorilla and Orang the V form is most common, whereas the Y type is most frequent in the Chimpanzee and Gibbons ; in Man the V type is almost universal. ' The observations recorded by many
* The palatal rugae? have been described or figured by Beddard (304), Bischoff (425), Ehlers (44ia), Gratiolet (330), Sonntag (399), Symington (403), and TValdeyer (412). Gegenbaur (249) has studied them fully.
The tongue has been described by a large number of authors, whose works have been analysed by Sonntag (150).
The numerous works on the alimentary canal have been collected by Sperino (401) and Keith (99),